IMMUNODEFICIENCIES

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM is the set of defenses of an organism which allows a protection against microbes and cancer cells.

Evolution of the immune system over time

Evolution SI EN-03-03.png

NATURAL IMMUNODEFICIENY

INFANTS

  • Immune system in development

  • 40% of neonatal deaths are due
    to infections

  • Nursing protection up to 6 month (maternal antibodies)

 

ELDERLY

  • Slower immune system

  • More vulnerable to infections

PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY

  • Very rare

  • Genetic disease (hereditary)

 

More than 100 of these syndromes have
been described

 SECONDARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY 

Systemic disorder due to a chronic
disease such as:

  • Diabetes

  • Renal and hepatic insuciency

  • Viral infection (HIV)

Taking immunosuppressants (therapeutic
immunosuppression)

Alcoolism and maltrunition can aggravate, but cannot directly cause immunosupression.

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

Immunosuppression is associated with a decrease or even inhibition of the activation of the immune system, which can be induced by therapy or medication.

cancers

The therapy is used to attack the cancer/tumor, but also affects the immune system. 
 

Examples of therapies inducing immunosuppression :

  • Radiotherapy

  • Chemotherapy

transplantation

Immunosuppression is used to tolerate the new organ or new cells transplanted.
 

Examples of drugs inducing immunosuppression :

  • Calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus or Cyclosporine)

  • Mycophenolic acid 

  • Corticosteroids

  • Azathioprine

Anatomical Model

Auto-immune diseases

Examples of auto-immune diseases:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  • Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's, colitis)

 

 

Examples of treatments:

  • Methotrexate

  • Cyclosporine

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

  • Corticosteroids

  • Biological therapy (Rituximab, Etanercept)